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Cardiac system Typeit

Target Level
Running Total
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It is useful for an athlete to be able to monitor the health and effectiveness of their heart. To do so, several measurements of the heart can be made; these are: heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output. You will need to know how to measure or calculate each of these. Let's explore these further below.

  • Heart rate – the number of times the heart per
  • Stroke volume – the of blood ejected from the per
  • Cardiac output – the volume of blood ejected from the in

This can be summarised with the following equation:

    = × stroke volume

During exercise, these values change in order to meet the demands of exercise. Heart rate linearly with exercise intensity. Increasing heart rate also increases the cardiac output as the heart is pumping more blood per . Stroke volume also increases as the heart is working harder to pump out more blood per . This, in turn, also increases the . Before exercise begins, the heart rate also increases as a physiological response in preparation for exercise. This is called .

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